DEQ Fails to Monitor HIO Lead Emissions

March 20, 2016

DEQ Spiraling Out of Control

Federal legislators, including Senator Ron Wyden, Senator Jeff Merkley and Rep. Earl Blumenauer, have expressed alarm over the public health emergency posed by findings of elevated levels of toxins in Portland's air. Two art glass manufacturers are now under investigation for their use of heavy metals and for polluting their surrounding neighborhoods with cadmium and arsenic. Soil tests also revealed lead in the vicinity of Cleveland High School.

The source of the cadmium and arsenic was traced to two art glass manufacturing companies - Bullseye in SE Portland and Uroboros in NE Portland. The concerns of the federal delegation are explained in a 2/12/16 letter to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Gina McCarthy, wherein they point out that these toxic emissions were in close proximity to densely populated residential communities and neighborhood schools. The legislators are now seeking assistance from the EPA in addressing the crisis. Their letter also raised concerns about the shortage of air quality monitors and advocated for increased monitoring, modeling and research.[1]

Despite the heightened level of concern triggered by this situation, high air toxic levels in the Portland Metropolitan region are hardly a new revelation. Oregon's Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) has known since at least 2005 that many pollutants in the area exceeded benchmark levels. Several years ago, the Coalition for a Livable Future (CLF) alerted the public to the severity of the issue when it identified a number of areas throughout the region as 'hotspots' due to "extremely high levels of air toxics, at more than 120 times above the benchmark level."[2] Per the CLF,

"...there are much larger areas, often surrounding these hotspots, with air toxic levels that are 81 to 120 times above the benchmarks. These include parts of Vancouver and Gresham as well as parts of northeast, northwest, and southwest Portland, part of Forest Grove, and a large area of Washington County between Tigard and Hillsboro."

CLF further noted that almost the entire greater Portland Metropolitan Region, including parts of Multnomah, Washington and Clackamas County, "has air toxics at levels that can cause adverse health effects."[3]

DEQ's Industry Cronyism Fuels Oregon's Policy of Government Sanctioned Pollution

The Oregon DEQ has recently come under a great deal of well-deserved criticism and scrutiny for its chronic failure to address toxic air emissions throughout the region. In the wake of this tumult the Director of DEQ, Dick Pedersen, and the DEQ Air Quality Manager, David Munro, announced their intent to resign.[4]

Oregonian reporter Steve Duin identified a key factor that contributed to DEQ's failure,

"The Department of Environmental Quality is still dependent on the industries it regulates, which - when I checked in 2009 - provide 70 percent of its funding."[5]

Due, in part, to its unsavory financial relationships with many of Oregon's most egregious polluters, DEQ has developed a reputation for ignoring and minimizing the very serious health impacts of toxic exposure perpetuated by their industrial business and corporate cronies.

Growing dissatisfaction with DEQ's performance recently prompted Portland Mayor Charlie Hales and Multnomah County Commission Chair Deborah Kafoury to announce plans to explore the possibility of establishing a local air quality agency separate from DEQ and independent of state control.[6]

Metro Councilor, Bob Stacy has also voiced support for an alternative to DEQ,

"As the evidence mounts, it has become crystal clear to so many people in this city that DEQ has failed to protect public health. There are many reasons why this has happened. The industry it is supposed to regulate quite literally wrote the rules that apply to their polluting activities. And the agency's budget is largely paid for by the permits issued to these industries. The system is broken."[7]

DEQ Capitulates to Port of Portland on Hillsboro Airport Lead Pollution

Hillsboro Airport (HIO), the largest general aviation airport in the state, is also the largest facility source of lead emissions in Oregon. In 2007, the owner and operator of HIO, the Port of Portland (Port), estimated annual lead emissions of 0.7 tons per year during the landing and take-off (LTO) cycle of flight.[8] The Port is now forecasting that LTO lead emissions will increase to 0.9 tons by 2021.[9] HIO, which is ranked by the EPA as 21st in the nation out of nearly 20,000 U.S. airports in lead emissions[10], is located in Washington County. It is one of a number of lead polluting airports included within the Portland Air Toxic Solutions (PATS) study area.

According to DEQ, the Portland Air Toxics Solutions project was created "to work with local communities to develop air toxics reduction strategies for the Portland region, including portions of Multnomah, Washington and Clackamas Counties."[11] Unfortunately due to DEQ's history of advocacy on behalf of industries intent on increasing rather than reducing emissions, no significant "reduction strategies" have been established.

When the PATS maps were initially released in 2005,[12] DEQ found that lead emissions in the vicinity of the Hillsboro Airport exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) established by the Clean Air Act.[13] In some areas, these emissions were twice the federal standard yet nothing substantive was done to reduce the emissions. Instead, DEQ gave the Port of Portland, the biggest lead polluter in Oregon, free rein to counter their findings. The map below is the original version released with the PATS study in 2005, showing a red hotspot over Hillsboro.

PATS 2005 Estimated Lead Concentrations[14]

The cozy relationship between DEQ and the Port of Portland (a quasi government agency with both municipality and corporate status) serves as a prime example of how DEQ acquiesces to industry at the expense of peoples' health. The Port of Portland had a vested business and economic interest in denying DEQ's findings. Towards this end it hired a private consulting firm, CDM, to perform a separate study. Please note that the Port of Portland imposes a flowage fee on every gallon of fuel sold at HIO thus profits from the sale of toxic fuels. The Port also receives money from the various airport businesses that dispense and utilize leaded fuel. Despite this glaring conflict of interest, DEQ allowed the agency responsible for these high lead readings to perform its own study - an arrangement that in many respects is tantamount to allowing a thief to serve as the judge and jury at his own trial. The very nature of this arrangement negated any possibility of an unbiased, third party objective analysis.

The 9/1/10 Hillsboro Airport Lead Study,[15] refuting the exceedances, was performed without peer review or public input, nonetheless DEQ capitulated to these findings. Neither the Port nor DEQ engaged in any actual monitoring. Instead, both agencies relied on assumptions, estimates and computer modeling. Neither the Port nor DEQ modeled or measured ground run-up pre-flight engine checks, a procedure that the EPA has identified as "the most important contributor to peak air Pb [lead] concentrations."[16] Though DEQ is responsible for aircraft emissions that occur on the ground, it does not appear that this agency modeled or monitored ground run-up activity at HIO or any other Oregon airport.

It is troubling that the Port and DEQ seemed intent upon obfuscating the issue instead of engaging in a responsible effort to determine the extent to which lead pollution generated by HIO poses a risk to children, unborn fetuses and others routinely impacted by this airport. After all, it is now common knowledge that lead is a pernicious neurotoxin and probable carcinogen that, even in very small amounts, may contribute to the development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a condition that can result in devastating effects on children, their families and society. Lead has also been linked to reduced IQ, conduct disorder, increased violence, cardiovascular problems, kidney ailments, miscarriages, possibly dementia and a host of other serious health effects.

In response to the study, DEQ withdrew its initial findings, aligned with the Port and issued a second map asserting that the lead exceedances in the vicinity of the airport had disappeared. Based on the Port's study, lead was subsequently removed from the DEQ PATS list of air toxins that exceed benchmark standards. As a result lead is no longer included as an air toxic of concern in the PATS study maps released by DEQ in January of 2011.[17]

Below is the lead map released by DEQ in 2010 retracting lead exceedance findings in the vicinity of HIO based on the Port's study. The Hillsboro hotspot has disappeared.

PATS 2017 Estimated Lead Concentrations[18]

Per DEQ, "The CDM Hillsboro Airport Lead Study used a model that is different and more complex than the model DEQ used for the Portland Air Toxics Solutions project. DEQ has not conducted an analysis to compare the study to its Portland Air Toxics Solutions model."[19]

To reiterate, DEQ essentially allowed the biggest lead polluter in the entire state to write its own ticket. Does it really come as a surprise that the Port of Portland, the owner and operator of the airport, which profits from the sale of leaded fuel, would minimize the impact? And is it any wonder that the public has completely lost faith in the ability of DEQ to address the environmental health crisis that exists throughout the region?

Oregon's Airports Promote Government Sponsored Lead Pollution

Two government agencies are responsible for a substantial amount of the lead pollution in the state. The largest facility source lead polluters in Oregon are, first and foremost, the three airports owned and operated by the Port of Portland. At 0.7 tons per year, HIO is the biggest offender. In Multnomah County, Troutdale Airport is the number one facility source of lead and Portland International (PDX) ranks third. These three airports, combined, pump well over a ton of lead into the air each year during the landing and take-off phase of flight. As noted earlier neither the Port nor DEQ have ever bothered to model or monitor the lead emissions from the run-up phase.

The 28 airports owned and operated by the Oregon State Department of Aviation also contribute to lead pollution. EPA estimates indicate that the combined lead emissions from these airports totaled 0.59 tons in 2011 during the landing and take-off cycle of flight. This does not include lead emissions released during ground run-up checks or the cruise phase of flight. Based on 2008 aviation operations in Oregon, the EPA estimated that in that year alone, aviation activity was responsible for spewing an additional 5.3 tons of lead into Oregon's air during the cruise phase of flight.

These figures indicate that Oregon's government-subsidized aviation sector emits more lead in the state than any other industry. The above numbers do not include the lead emissions from the other, more than 400 public and private airports located in Oregon - a significant percentage of which are heavily subsidized with federal and state money.

The numbers also reveal that the State of Oregon has a history of looking the other way and ignoring health impacts while allowing the aviation sector to spew close to 10 tons of lead, perhaps more, annually into our air, soil and water.

In recent weeks there have been many accusations about DEQ's history of pandering to the demands of the corporate and industrial sector while neglecting the greater good of the community. The Port of Portland/DEQ relationship, wherein the state agency responsible for protecting the community from toxic emissions allowed the biggest lead polluter in the entire state to commission its own "behind closed doors study," illustrates how DEQ has failed to protect the community by conceding to corporate and industry interests while compromising the health of the community.

HIO Source of Numerous Air Toxins In Addition to Lead

In addition to lead, HIO is a major facility source of an array of other air toxics. Per the 2011 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI), HIO is the largest facility source of acrolein, 1,3 butadiene, ethyl benzene, and acetaldehyde in Washington County. All of these air toxins are listed in the PATS study as exceeding benchmark levels. PATS recommended reducing these pollutants by 81 to 88 % depending on the specific toxin. HIO is also the largest facility source of formaldehyde in Washington County which is also one of the 15 toxins identified in the PATS study as exceeding benchmark levels. PATS recommended reducing this air pollutant by 10 %.[20] Notwithstanding the serious health risks associated with these air toxics, no efforts have been initiated by DEQ, the Port of Portland, or the State of Oregon to protect the public from these emissions.

HIO also generates a number of pollutants not included in the PATS study. In response to Clean Air Act requirements, the EPA established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six "criteria" pollutants determined to pose a danger to public health and the environment. These pollutants are lead, carbon monoxide, particulate matter (includes PM 2.5 and PM 10), ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide.[21] According to the 2011 EPA NEI, HIO is the largest facility source of elemental carbon particulate matter 2.5 and carbon monoxide and the second largest source of nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter 2.5 emissions in Washington County.[22]

Regardless of documented evidence about the air toxics associated with HIO, the Port continues to grow and expand this facility. More than 84 years ago, HIO started out as a grassy airstrip. Since that time it has grown into the busiest general aviation airport in the state. Despite this exponential growth over the years, an Environmental Impact Study has never been done. Instead the Port and FAA frequently rely on unsubstantiated assertions and poorly documented studies to promote and rationalize the multiple expansion projects that have occurred at this facility. Sadly, the EPA, DEQ and the Oregon Legislature have refused to intervene on behalf of the environment and public health to address this situation.

Protect the Community from Toxic Assault

In light of the serious health impacts associated with lead and the other air toxics emitted by HIO, immediate steps must be taken to reduce aviation activity at this facility. Notably, the vast majority of operations at this airport are related to a flight training school primarily owned by out of state investment firms which primarily train students from foreign countries. Open, public, scientific engagement needs to be initiated to accurately determine the health and environmental impacts of this airport.

The toxic nature of the region's air has been known for years, at least since 2005 when the Portland Air Toxic maps were initially released, yet DEQ has done nothing to reduce these levels. Efforts by Oregon Aviation Watch to communicate with DEQ about concerns related to HIO via face to face meetings, phone calls and emails have failed to address our concerns. As stated by Hillsboro resident and OAW board member, Blaine Ackley, "We had meetings with the DEQ that went nowhere. We have sent emails that go unanswered and we make phone calls that receive no response. This is an agency spiraling out of control and unresponsive to the public that it is supposed to serve."

How long will DEQ, the state legislature, and local representatives continue to pretend that business as usual trumps the long-term health and well being of the community? As so aptly stated by Rep Rob Nosse at a 2/23/16 hearing in Salem, "A business can't poison the community it operates in and expect the community to support it."[23] Yet the Hillsboro Airport has been getting away with this for a very long time.

Sources

[1] Wyden, R., Merkley, J., Blumenauer, E. Letter to EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy. (2/17/16). Available on-line at http://media.oregonlive.com/environment_impact/other/EPA%20letter_Portland%20Air%20Pollution.pdf.

[2] Air Quality. Coalition for a Livable Future website. Available at http://clfuture.org/atlas-maps/air-quality-all-sources.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Profita, Cassandra. Oregon Department Of Environmental Quality Director Dick Pedersen Steps Down. OPB. (3/1/16). Available on-line at http://www.opb.org/news/article/oregon-department-of-environmental-quality-director-dick-pedersen-steps-down/.

[5] Duin, Steve. The Alarm Over Air Toxins in Southeast Portland. OregonLive. (2/6/16). Available on-line at http://www.oregonlive.com/news/oregonian/steve_duin/index.ssf/2016/02/steve_duin_heavy_metal_in_the.html.

[6] Kullgren, Ian. Disgusted Residents Sound Off on Portland Air Pollution. OregonLive. (2/23/16). Available on-line at http://www.oregonlive.com/politics/index.ssf/2016/02/disgusted_residents_sound_off.html.

[7] Stacey, Bob. Portland Area Needs Its Own Air Quality Board (Opinion). OregonLive. (3/16/16) Available on-line at http://www.oregonlive.com/opinion/index.ssf/2016/03/portland_area_needs_its_own_ai.html.

[8] Hillsboro Airport Parallel Runway 12L/30R. Draft Environmental Assessment. Volume2 Appendices. Prepared for Port of Portland by CH2MHILL. (October 2009). Pg. C3 1-2.

[9] Hillsboro Airport Parallel Runway 12L/30R. Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment. Appendix E – Air Quality Technical Memo. Prepared for Port of Portland by Barrilleaux, J. and Dowlin R. (3/15/13). Pg. 9-11.

[10] EPA Memorandum from Marion Hoyer and Meredith Pedde to the Lead NAAQS Docket EPA-HQOAR-2006-0735. (11/8/10). Pg. 2-3. Available on-line at https://www3.epa.gov/otaq/regs/nonroad/aviation/memo-selc-airport-mon-stdy.pdf.

[11] Air Quality. Air Toxics. Portland Air Toxics Solutions. ODEQ. Available on-line at http://www.deq.state.or.us/aq/toxics/pats.htm.

[12] Portland Air Toxics Solutions Project Modeled Lead Data and the Hillsboro Airport. Air Quality Planning. DEQ-11-AQ-051.(Last updated 1/20/12 by Sarah Armitage) Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Available on-line at http://oregonaviationwatch.org/docs/LeadCloudGraphics/DEQ-11-AQ-051.pdf.

[13] Maps and a discussion on these exceedances is included in a 4/4/12 article by Oregon Aviation Watch. Available on-line at http://www.oregonaviationwatch.org/articles/OAW-LeadCloudOverOregon.php.

[14] Portland Air Toxics Solutions Project Modeled Lead Data and the Hillsboro Airport. Air Quality Planning. DEQ-11-AQ-051.(Last updated 1/20/12 by Sarah Armitage) Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Available on-line at http://oregonaviationwatch.org/docs/LeadCloudGraphics/DEQ-11-AQ-051.pdf.

[15] Hillsboro Airport Parallel Runway 12L/30R Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment. Prepared by Port of Portland for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Vol. 1 Appendix F. (February 2014). Available on-line at http://www.portofportland.com/pdfpop/HIO_SEA_Final_AppA.pdf.

[16] Development and Evaluation of an Air Quality Modeling Approach for Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft Operating on Leaded Aviation Gasoline. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA-420-R-10-007. (February 2010). Pg.. 71. Available on-line at https://www3.epa.gov/nonroad/aviation/420r10007.pdf.

[17] PATS 2017 Pollutants Modeling Study Maps. Air Quality: Air Toxics. Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. (1/25/11). Available on-line at http://www.deq.state.or.us/aq/toxics/docs/pats/15pollutantsAboveSummary.pdf.

[18] Portland Air Toxics Solutions Project Modeled Lead Data and the Hillsboro Airport. Air Quality Planning. DEQ-11-AQ-051.(Last updated 1/20/12 by Sarah Armitage) Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.

[19] Portland Air Toxics Solutions Project Modeled Lead Data and the Hillsboro Airport. Air Quality Planning. DEQ-11-AQ-051.(Last updated 1/20/12 by Sarah Armitage) Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Available on-line at http://oregonaviationwatch.org/docs/LeadCloudGraphics/DEQ-11-AQ-051.pdf.

[20] PATS 2017 Pollutants Modeling Study Maps. Air Quality: Air Toxics. Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. (1/25/11). Available on-line at http://www.deq.state.or.us/aq/toxics/docs/pats/15pollutantsAboveSummary.pdf.

[21] National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). EPA. Available on-line at https://www3.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/criteria.html.

[22] 2011 National Emissions Inventory. Environmental Protection Agency.

[23] Kullgren, Ian. Disgusted Residents Sound Off on Portland Air Pollution. OregonLive. (2/23/16). Available on-line at http://www.oregonlive.com/politics/index.ssf/2016/02/disgusted_residents_sound_off.html.

Hillsboro Tribune - “Toxic Emission Charges Continue to Dog Airport”

February 14, 2016

On February 12, 2016 the Hillsboro Tribune published an article by Travis Loose, Toxic Emission Charges Continue to Dog Airport. The report focuses on a request by Oregon Aviation Watch urging Portland Community College to terminate its Aviation Sciences flight training program due to excessive noise, lead pollution and other toxic emissions. Click on Toxic Emission Charges Continue to Dog Airport to access the article.

The letter dated 12/14/15 sent by Oregon Aviation Watch to PCC President, Sylvia Kelley, is available at Oregon Aviation Watch Urges PCC To Terminate Flight Training Program. To date, Ms. Kelley, has not responded to the concerns enumerated in the letter.

Lead Poisoning in America

February 9, 2016

New York Times Editorial by Nicholas Kristof on Nationwide Epidemic of Lead Poisoning

A February 6, 2016 editorial by New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof explores the tragedy and social injustice of Flint's lead tainted water crisis. He further reports that nationwide more than a half million children between the ages of 1 and 5 suffer from lead poisoning. Many are low income children of color. Per the article,

"In Flint, 4.9 percent of children tested for lead turned out to have elevated levels. That's inexcusable. But in 2014 in New York State outside of New York City, the figure was 6.7 percent. In Pennsylvania, 8.5 percent. On the west side of Detroit, one-fifth of the children tested in 2014 had lead poisoning. In Iowa for 2012, the most recent year available, an astonishing 32 percent of children tested had elevated lead levels. (I calculated most of these numbers from C.D.C. data.)"

To access the article in full click on the following link: America Is Flint.

Aviation and Lead Emissions

More than 50 percent of airborne lead nationwide is emitted by the aviation industry, which continues to rely on lead based fuel for piston engine general aviation aircraft. In Oregon, Port of Portland owned and operated airports are major facility sources of lead pollution. In fact PDX, Hillsboro, and Troutdale combined release well over a ton of lead into the air each year. Of the three, Hillsboro Airport (HIO), which primarily serves the flight training industry, is the biggest offender. Among nearly 20,000 airports nationwide, HIO ranks 21st in lead emissions.

According to the 2011 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI) there are 509 facility sources of lead in Oregon, 417 are airports.

The 2011 EPA NEI further reveals that airports are the number one source of lead emissions in all but 5 of Oregon's 36 counties. The exceptions are as follows:

  • Yamhill County - of the 20 facility sources of lead listed all but 2 are airports. McMinnville Airport ranks second to Cascade Steel.
  • Douglas County - of the 27 facility sources of lead, 20 are airports. Roseburg Regional Airport ranks second to Riddle Plywood
  • Gilliam County - of the 5 facility sources listed Columbia Ridge Landfill and Recycling Center is number 1, Condon County Pauling Field, a state owned airport is second.
  • Lincoln County - of the 9 facility sources of lead all are airports except 1, Newport Municipal Airport ranks second to Toledo Pulp and Paper Plant in lead emissions.
  • Morrow County - of the 6 facility sources of lead listed, 3 are airports. PGE Boardnman is the number one facility source and Lexington Airport ranks second.

In the 8 counties discussed below there are 160 lead sources, 129 are airports.

Washington County
22 facility sources of lead, all but one are airports. The flight training airports - Hillsboro, Starks Twin Oaks and Skyport - are among the worst offenders and are ranked the first, second and fourth, respectively. Hillsboro Airport emits more lead than any other facility source in the entire state.
Multnomah County
33 facility sources of lead, 15 are airports. The number one facility source of lead emissions in this jurisdiction is the Troutdale Airport. Owens-Brockway Glass Container ranks second and Portland International Airport is third.
Clackamas County
31 facility sources of lead. All but 2 are airports. The state of Oregon owned and operated Mulino Airport holds the top spot.
Columbia County
9 facility sources of lead, 5 are airports. Scappoose Airpark is number one emitter in this jurisdiction and the seventh largest facility source of lead in the entire state.
Clark County
24 facility sources of lead, all but 3 are airports with Pearson Field holding the top spot.
Yamhill County
20 facility sources of lead, all but 2 are airports. McMinnville Municipal is number two on the list. Cascade Steel is number one.
Marion County
25 facility sources of lead, all but 2 are airports. The state owned and operated Aurora Airport is the worst offender in this jurisdiction. This airport is the sixth largest facility source of lead in the state.
Deschutes County
20 facility sources of lead, all but 2 are airports. Bend Municipal Airport holds the top spot followed by Roberts Field. Bend Municipal is the fifth largest facility source of lead in the state.

OregonPEN Report on Lead Poisoning

January 24, 2016

The January 16, 2016 edition of Oregon Public Empowerment Network (OregonPEN) explores the parallels between the Flint, Michigan lead poisoning travesty and government sanctioned airborne lead pollution by the aviation industry.

We're All Flint: State of Oregon and U.S. EPA A-OK with Airborne Pb [Lead] Poisoning of Oregonians

"With the outrageous fiasco in Flint, Michigan, forcing the corporate press to note the horror unleashed on the mostly poor, mostly non-white residents, lead is back in the news. The people of Flint learned that they and their children had been poisoned with lead (Pb) from their taps, thanks to the un-elected city manager appointed by the "businessman" governor. Many in Oregon might be inclined to be thankful that they are not living in a "rust belt" city beset by such a plague of ills. Which is why this OregonPEN is devoted to the ongoing Pb poisoning occurring here in Oregon. Far too many people think lead is a hazard of poor children living in slums; they live unaware that lead is still with us, still being pumped into the atmosphere by the ton."

We begin with this recent release from OHSU (and Michigan State) about the first study to confirm a causal link between lead exposure and increased ADHD behavioral health problems, especially in males:

Click on the following link to access the full OregonPEN article: http://www.oregonpen.org/articles--archive/were-all-flint-state-of-oregon-and-us-epa-a-ok-with-airborne-pb-poisoning-of-oregonians.

OHSU Study Confirms Causal Link between Lead Exposure and ADHD

January 13, 2016

A 1/17/16 Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU) release reported on an article, Study First to Confirm Causal Link Between Lead Exposure and ADHD. Per OHSU,

"Scientists at OHSU Doernbecher Childrens Hospital have defined the first causal link between blood lead exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in humans. While previous studies have associated lead blood levels with ADHD, research published in Psychological Science is the first to confirm previous hypotheses that exposure to lead in miniscule amounts typical in the U.S., or less than 10 parts per billion, increases symptoms in some individuals with ADHD."

Neither the OHSU announcement nor an Oregonian article on this topic (Study proves link between ADHD and even 'safe' lead levels) discussed the association between lead exposure and aviation fuel.

Aviation Responsible for 50% or More of Airborne Lead Emissions in the U.S.

Piston engine general aviation aircraft, often used for pilot training and recreational flying, are responsible for more than 50% of airborne lead emissions in the U.S. Commercial passenger aircraft by contrast utilize non-leaded jet fuel. (For additional information on this topic see the 9/3/12 Scientific American Article, Does the Continued Use of Lead in Aviation Fuel Endanger the Public Health and the Environment?)

In Oregon, the three airports owned and operated by the Port of Portland (Port) routinely release over a ton of lead into the environment each year. The worst offender is the Hillsboro Airport (HIO), the top facility source of lead emissions in Oregon and Washington County. Major contributors to these high emission levels are Portland Community College (PCC) Aviation Science student pilots who repetitively train over homes, schools, neighborhoods, waterways, parks and prime farmland. International student pilots, recruited by Hillsboro Aero Academy, also add to the high lead levels.

Vulnerable children and other residents who reside in Hillsboro and the surrounding area are exposed to at least 0.7 tons per year from this airport during the landing and take-off cycle. Additional lead is released during engine run-up checks, which per the EPA, is one of the largest sources of lead emissions in airport environs. Yet the Port chose not to include run-up lead emissions in their HIO estimates. In addition, lead is released during the cruise phase of flight.

According to the EPA, of the nearly 20,000 airports in the U.S., HIO ranks 21st in lead emissions. Port and Federal Aviation Administration documents forecast that HIO lead emissions will increase to 0.9 tons or more per year by 2021.

In Multnomah County, the Port owned and operated Troutdale Airport, which also caters to PCC and international flight training students, is the largest facility source of lead emissions while Portland International Airport (PDX) ranks third.

1 in 38 Young Children in U.S. Have Elevated Lead Levels

A 4/4/13 USA Today article by Alison Young, Lead Poisoning Toll Revised to 1 in 38 Young Kids, reports that approximately 535,000 U.S. children between the ages of 1 and 5 are estimated to have elevated and potentially harmful levels of lead in their bodies. Spurred on by mounting concerns and conclusive medical evidence about the damaging effects of lead even at very low levels, in 2012 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) lowered the acceptable level of lead in a child's blood from 10 to 5 micrograms per deciliter while at the same time warning that there is no safe level of lead in a child's blood. As a result of this change, estimates now indicate that far more children are exposed to health threatening levels of lead. The damaging impacts of this neurotoxin and probable carcinogen are believed to be irreversible and can affect every organ in the body. In children lead is associated with lower IQs and attention deficits as well as behavior and learning problems. Lead exposure in adults is linked with cardiovascular disease, kidney disorders, dementia, and increased violence.

In addition, lead poisoning is a social justice issue. According to the CDC, children living in poverty and people of color are at higher risk of lead exposure than other populations.

Read more about these issues at the links below.

Oregon Aviation Watch Urges PCC To Terminate Flight Training Program

December 30, 2015

In a 12/14/2015 letter to Portland Community College (PCC) President Sylvia Kelley, Oregon Aviation Watch (OAW) urges PCC to terminate the Aviation Sciences pilot training program due to excessive noise, lead emissions, air pollution, negative health impacts and an array of other concerns. The letter also raises questions about the lack of responsible stewardship and transparency exhibited by PCC in using public money to establish, fund and run this program. We are awaiting President Kelley's reply.

Oregon Aviation Watch
OregonAviationWatch.org

Ms. Sylvia Kelley
President of Portland Community College
12000 SW 49th St.
Portland, Oregon 97280

Re: Unanimous agreement by the Board of Oregon Aviation Watch that the Aviation Sciences pilot training program at PCC should be terminated for the reasons set forth below.

Dear Ms. Kelley:

During a phone conversation this summer, you recommended sending a letter documenting the concerns of Oregon Aviation Watch related to the PCC Aviation Sciences flight training program.

Members of the Oregon Aviation Watch board are unanimously opposed to flight training in Washington County due to noise, toxic emissions, safety risks, security concerns, property devaluation, taxpayer expense and the livability degradation associated with this activity. Though Oregon Aviation Watch is concerned about all of the above issues, this letter will focus predominantly on the degradation of livability due to noise, lead and other toxic emissions generated by PCC's symbiotic relationship with the Port of Portland, the FAA and the aviation industry. The erosion of public trust, conflict of interest issues and questions about responsible stewardship regarding public monies will also be explored.

Though we are strong supporters of educational programs and international exchange endeavors that enhance and promote the greater good, we do not feel that flight training falls within this category. We are disappointed that PCC never bothered to reach out to the public who contribute to PCC via property tax disbursements, ballot measures, and State of Oregon financial support to ask how they felt about instituting a helicopter and fixed wing flight training program that has had and continues to have such a disruptive and toxic effect throughout the region. Indeed many of the negative health effects caused by flight training impair and interfere with the learning process and the quality of life of area residents.

In 2015, the Port of Portland opened a third runway at the Hillsboro Airport. It was constructed to accommodate flight training activity and other smaller aircraft. More than a decade has passed since the Port of Portland revealed during the 2005 Hillsboro Airport master planning process, that, "Future growth in local operations will be driven by training operations at Hillsboro Airport. This will be a function of the businesses on the airport which provide pilot training services."[1] A 2006 Daily Journal of Commerce interview with Mary Maxwell, who served as served as Director of Aviation for the Port of Portland from 2004-2009, voiced similar views "Next on our plans will be the development of a third runway, which is primarily a shorter runway for training aircraft."[2]

The bulk of the $17M earmarked for this boondoggle came from public coffers, including the FAA, Connect Oregon, Oregon Department of Transportation and the Port of Portland. As a result the public is left footing the bill, not only for a portion of PCC classroom training for prospective pilots, but also for airport infrastructure required for this activity. In addition the Hillsboro Airport tower and requisite staffing are publicly funded. Clearly, PCC's flight training program comes at great expense to area residents, who are not only underwriting a significant monetary burden, but are also routinely deprived of their right to the enjoyment of their property.

More than 84 years ago, the Hillsboro Airport (HIO) started out as a grassy airstrip. Since that time it has grown into the busiest general aviation airport in the state. Yet despite this exponential growth over the years, an Environmental Impact Study has never been done. Instead the Port and FAA frequently rely on unsubstantiated assertions and poorly documented studies to promote and rationalize the multiple expansion projects that have occurred at this facility.

A careful review of Port and FAA documents reveals that the vast majority of the operations at HIO are on behalf of flight training students, many of whom attend PCC. As a direct result of the relationship honed between the Port of Portland, the FAA and PCC, this airport now hosts one of the largest combined helicopter and fixed wing flight training schools in the Pacific Northwest. Hillsboro Aero Academy (formerly Hillsboro Aviation) is a private for-profit company primarily owned by two out of state, east coast investors - Renovus Capital and Graycliff Partners. Minority owners include Max Lyons, who sold the school to Renovus and Graycliff in 2014 and who now manages the school. As noted on the PCC Aviation Science website, the flight instruction portion of the training "is provided by our industry partner, Hillsboro Aero Academy, at the Hillsboro Airport and Troutdale Airport locations."[3]

Jon Hay, the current President and CEO of Hillsboro Aero Academy, is also a minority owner. During a November 2015 Hillsboro Airport Roundtable Exchange (HARE) meeting, Mr. Hay said that 60 to 70% of the student pilots who train with Hillsboro Aero Academy are from overseas. What this reveals is that we now have a private flight training school, owned primarily by two out of state investment firms, training mostly foreign students by utilizing infrastructure subsidized by US citizens, and utilizing airspace over Washington County residents.

Aviation Noise - Health Impacts

The World Health Organization [WHO] Guidelines for Community Noise documents seven categories of adverse health effects of noise pollution on humans: hearing impairment, interference with spoken communication, sleep disturbances, cardiovascular disturbances, disturbances in mental health, impaired task performance, negative social behavior and annoyance reactions.[4] All of these negative health impacts can potentially interfere with learning and education.

According to WHO, "Severe noise problems may arise at airports hosting many helicopters or smaller aircraft used for private business, flying training and leisure purposes."[5] The WHO also reports that, "Although everyone may be adversely affected by noise pollution, groups that are particularly vulnerable include infants, children, those with mental or physical illnesses, and the elderly. Because children are particularly vulnerable to noise induced abnormalities, they need special protection."[6] Please note that all of the above vulnerable populations are routinely, willfully, and intentionally subjected to oft-times relentless aviation noise intrusions by PCC Aviation Science students.

To place the extensive impact of flight training aircraft noise in perspective, it is important to consider that approximately two-thirds of the 220,000 operations logged at HIO in 2011 involved "touch and go" maneuvers wherein student pilots repetitively circle within 4 to 5 miles of the airport at an altitude of less than 2,000 feet.[7] Additional training occurs at designated locations within 20 miles of the airport. According to a U.S. Airport/Facility Directory, there is an "Intensive Flight Training" area adjacent to HIO that extends over Buxton, Banks, and Manning then west towards Timber. It continues south over Gales Creek, Forest Grove, Carlton and Lafayette. From McMinnville it proceeds east almost to St. Paul then north back to HIO.

The broad ranging nature of the flight training industry essentially means that people living in urban settings in close proximity to HIO as well as those living 20 miles away in an otherwise peaceful wooded or rural area with low ambient noise levels are frequently subjected to the drone of aircraft noise overhead.

Sadly, the Port of Portland has historically exhibited a dismissive stance towards community noise concerns. Just as PCC denies regulatory authority to address aircraft noise, so too does the Port. Though the Port has a noise office, the only action it takes on behalf of concerned residents is to log complaints while at the same time denying that it has any authority or impetus to take definitive action aimed at reducing or mitigating the intrusions. Thus the noise problem continues to fester.

As noted in an 8/20/15 Oregon Aviation Watch posting,[8] agencies and government entities responsible for addressing aviation noise routinely deflect, ignore and minimize the problem which, in effect, promotes aviation interests over the greater good. Numerous studies attest to the negative impact of noise. Due to the pervasive failure of every government agency to address this serious health and livability issue, Oregon Aviation Watch urges PCC to terminate the Aviation Sciences program.

For additional information on the negative health effects of aircraft noise, please visit the following links:

Lead Emissions

Lead pollution is also a major concern. Out of nearly 20,000 airports nationwide, HIO ranks in the top one percent, 21st in the nation in lead emissions.[9] The 2011 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI) identifies HIO as the largest facility source of lead in Oregon. Per a recent Environmental Health Perspectives report, "...today piston-engine aircraft are the chief source of lead emissions in the United States, emitting 57% of the 964 tons of lead put into the air in 2008, according to the most recent figures from the National Emissions Inventory."[10] PCC's student pilots train, for the most part, in piston engine aircraft that use leaded fuel, thus are highly responsible for the lead emitted over vulnerable populations throughout the region.

The Port's initial environmental assessment on the third runway estimated that HIO emitted 0.7 tons of lead into the air in 2007.[11] In their Supplemental Environmental Assessment, the Port and FAA projected that HIO lead emissions are expected to rise to between 0.81 to 0.92 tons per year (tpy) by 2016 and 2021, respectively.[12] Both of the above cited documents reveal that already high levels of lead emissions will continue to increase at HIO from an estimated 0.7 tpy in 2007 to 0.9 tpy by 2021.

PCC students also receive pilot instruction at Troutdale Airport which is also a significant source of lead emissions. The EPA estimated that this facility emitted 0.18 tons of lead in 2011 and further identified the Troutdale Airport as the 8th largest facility source of lead emissions in Oregon and the number one source of lead emissions in Multnomah County. However since the operational count at Troutdale Airport has more than doubled from 56,790 operations in 2011[13] to 121,651 as of the end of the 2015 fiscal year,[14] it is reasonable to assume that the lead emissions have also doubled given the increase in flight training at this facility.

These findings indicate that lead emissions at the Hillsboro and Troutdale airports combined exceeds more than one ton per year just during the landing and take-off cycles of flight. Additional lead is released into the air during pre flight engine run-up checks and the cruise phase.

According to the EPA, "Children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of lead. Exposures to low levels of lead early in life have been linked to effects on IQ, learning, memory, and behavior. There is no identified safe level of lead in the body."[15] Research also indicates that "...once an elevated blood lead concentration has been detected, it is too late to prevent lead's deleterious effects on the developing brain. This fact, plus the very low blood lead levels established to negatively impact development indicate that the only way to prevent childhood lead poisoning is to prevent lead from ever getting into children's bodies."[16]

Over the past 50 years the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has periodically lowered acceptable blood lead levels for children and has ultimately concluded that, "...no level of lead in a child's blood can be specified as safe."[17]

The excerpt below from the National Institute of Health discusses the impacts of lead on the human organism.

Lead is a very strong poison. When a person swallows a lead object or breathes in lead dust, some of the poison can stay in the body and cause serious health problems... it is more common for lead poisoning to build up slowly over time. This occurs from repeated exposure to small amounts of lead. In this case, there may not be any obvious symptoms. Over time, even low levels of lead exposure can harm a child's mental development. The health problems get worse as the level of lead in the blood gets higher. Lead is much more harmful to children than adults because it can affect children's developing nerves and brains. The younger the child, the more harmful lead can be. Unborn children are the most vulnerable.

Adults who have had mildly high lead levels often recover without problems. In children, even mild lead poisoning can have a permanent impact on attention and IQ. People with higher lead levels have a greater risk of long-lasting health problems. They must be followed carefully. Their nerves and muscles can be greatly affected and may no longer function as well as they should. Other body systems may be harmed to various degrees, such as the kidneys and blood vessels. People who survive toxic lead levels may have some permanent brain damage. Children are more vulnerable to serious long-term problems.[18]

An extensive body of literature now links very low blood lead levels (occurring at typical background exposures) with ADHD. The symptoms of ADHD include extreme hyperactivity, impulsivity, inattentiveness and distractibility. ADHD often co-occurs with conduct and oppositional defiant disorders. Blood lead levels less than 1 μg/dL, well below the 5 μg/dL reference level established by the CDC in 2012, contribute to the development of ADHD. "Blood lead levels from 1 to 10 μg/dL are associated with lower child intelligence quotient (IQ), weaker executive cognitive abilities, behavior symptoms of ADHD and diagnosis of ADHD in community surveys."[19] A 2010 study published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry reported that "...ADHD, both as a diagnosis and as a symptom dimension, is associated with blood lead levels at low exposure, levels, even below 2.5 μg/dL."[20]

Lead exposure in adults is linked with cardiovascular disease and dementia[21] as well as an increase in violent behavior.[22]

In light of the significant negative health impacts associated with lead on neurological development and the learning process including, but not limited to, lower IQ's, ADHD, conduct disorder, and cognitive impairment, PCC's credibility as a responsible educational institution is in question.

PCC and Hillsboro Airport Contributions to Other Air Toxins

In addition to lead, HIO, is also one of the biggest facility sources of an array of other air toxics in Washington County. Per the 2011 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI), HIO is the largest facility source of acrolein, 1,3 butadiene, ethyl benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, organic carbon particulate matter 2.5, elemental carbon particulate matter 2.5, and carbon monoxide; the second largest source of nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter 2.5 emissions; and the third largest source of volatile organic compounds in Washington County.[23] Many of these toxins are known carcinogens, others are associated with an increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular disease as well as other serious and potentially life threatening ailments.

The Coalition for a Livable Future (CLF) identified a number of areas throughout the greater Portland Metropolitan region as 'hotspots' due to "extremely high levels of air toxics, at more than 120 times above the benchmark level."[24] The 'hotspots' in Washington County include Hillsboro, Beaverton and Aloha-Cooper Mountain. In addition, "there are much larger areas, often surrounding these hotspots, with air toxic levels that are 81 to 120 times above the benchmarks. These include parts of Vancouver and Gresham as well as parts of northeast, northwest, and southwest Portland, part of Forest Grove, and a large area of Washington County between Tigard and Hillsboro." Per CLF, almost the entire greater Portland Metropolitan Region "has air toxics at levels that can cause adverse health effects."[25]

Since PCC student pilots are primary users of HIO it follows that they are also major contributors to the serious pollution problems plaguing the region, a situation that could be easily remedied by eliminating the Aviation Sciences program and thereby restoring PCC's reputation as a conscientious and respectable educational institution rather than a major polluter.

Conflict of Interest Concerns

The recent decision by PCC[26] to appoint Carol Lyons, the wife of Max Lyons, to the PCC Foundation Board triggers major concerns about how PCC manages it affairs, as Ms. Lyons stands to financially benefit from her husband's aviation business connections with PCC. Max Lyons is currently the manager and minority owner of the Hillsboro Aero Academy and was owner of the Hillsboro Aviation flight school prior to the sale of the flight school to east coast investment firms. The Lyons family has likely profited at public expense due in no small measure to PCC's history of contracting with the private businesses associated with the Lyons family. Ms. Lyons appointment attests to PCC's questionable boundaries and inattention to adequate conflict of interest policies related to the use of public money and well-intentioned donations to their foundation. According to her PCC Foundation website bio, Carol Lyons is currently a Managing Partner at Lyons Aircraft Leasing and Lyons Properties and formerly served as Environmental Planner for the Port of Portland and an Operations Coordinator for the Portland International Airport.[27]

Another eyebrow raising appointment is that of Susie Lahsene, who currently works as a Senior Manager for Transportation and Land Use Policy at the Port of Portland.[28] Like the Hillsboro Aero Academy and the Lyons family, the Port profits via its relationship with PCC through its lease agreement with Hillsboro Aero Academy and Hillsboro Aviation as well as the fuel flowage fee of over 0.08 cents affixed to every gallon of jet and leaded fuel sold at HIO.

Obviously, Ms. Lyons and Ms. Lahsene and/or the companies they are affiliated with may benefit financially and otherwise from decisions promoted by the PCC Foundation Board. As a result there is the risk that these individuals may continue the long-established policy exhibited by the Port, PCC, Hillsboro Aviation and the Hillsboro Aero Academy of minimizing negative environmental and livability concerns in favor of monetary gain.

Conclusion

The 2015 Washington County property tax statement reveals that between 4 and 5 percent of the total bill is directed to PCC. Additional public monies are allotted to PCC by the State of Oregon. A 2015-2017 PCC General Fund budget report stated that 14 percent of PCC's revenues during this time-frame will come from property taxes and 37 percent from state disbursements,[29] thus more than half of PCC's budget is directly linked to taxpayer largess.

In return for the generosity bestowed by the public on PCC, many residents are routinely barraged with aircraft noise, toxic emissions and a number of other negative impacts - an unfortunate situation that represents a serious betrayal of the public trust and raises deep-seated questions about the ability of current PCC leadership to exercise responsible stewardship.

Oregon Aviation Watch urges PCC to be part of the solution rather than a primary cause of the problem. Eliminating the Aviation Sciences program would go a long way towards restoring PCC's reputation as an environmentally responsible educational institution that cares about the health and well-being of the community.

Members of Oregon Aviation Watch will gladly meet with you and other PCC decision makers to discuss our concerns and recommendations in greater detail.

Sincerely,

Miki Barnes, LCSW
President of Oregon Aviation Watch

James T. Lubischer
Vice President of Oregon Aviation Watch

Cc: Senator Chuck Riley, Representative Susan McLain, Representative Joe Gallegos, Representative Deborah Boone, Sandra Fowler-Hill - President PCC Rock Creek, Richard Read - Oregonian, Jim Ryan - Oregonian, John Schrag - Hillsboro Tribune, Kathy Fuller - Hillsboro Tribune, Nigel Jaquiss - Willamette Week, Tony Schick - Oregon Public Broadcasting

Notes

  1. Hillsboro Airport Master Plan. Port of Portland. (6/8/05). Pg. 3-31.
  2. Tucker, Libby. A Conversation with Mary Maxwell. Daily Journal of Commerce. (8/25/06). Available on-line at http://djcoregon.com/news/2006/08/25/a-conversation-with-mary-maxwell-the-sky-is-the-limit/.
  3. Flight Courses. Aviation Science-Program Overview. Portland Community College. Available on-line at http://www.pcc.edu/programs/aviation-science/overview.html.
  4. Adverse Health Effects of Noise. Community Health Noise Guidelines. Edited by Berglund, B, Lindvall T., Schwela, D. World Health Organization. Chapter 3. (1999). Available online at http://www.who.int/docstore/peh/noise/Comnoise3.htm.
  5. Transportation Noise. Guidelines for Community Noise. Edited by Berglund, B, Lindvall T., Schwela, D. World Health Organization. Chapter 2. Section 2.2.2. Page 25. (1999). Available online at http://www.who.int/docstore/peh/noise/guidelines2.html.
  6. Hagler, Louis. Summary of Adverse Health Effects of Noise Pollution: Based on the World Health Guideline for Community Noise.Pg. 1. Available online at http://www.noiseoff.org/document/who.summary.pdf.
  7. Hillsboro Airport Parallel Runway 12L/30R. Draft Environmental Assessment. Volume 1. Prepared for Port of Portland by CH2MHILL. (October 2009). Pg. 3-6.
  8. Barnes, Miki. Stop Aviation Noise Intrusions, File Complaints, Demand Action. Oregon Aviation Watch. (8/20/15). Available on-line at http://www.oregonaviationwatch.org/articles/OAW-NewNoiseButton.php.
  9. EPA Memorandum from Marion Hoyer and Meredith Pedde to the Lead NAAQS Docket EPA-HQOAR-2006-0735. (11/8/10). Pg. 2-3. Available on-line at http://www3.epa.gov/otaq/regs/nonroad/aviation/memo-selc-airport-mon-stdy.pdf.
  10. Kessler, Rebecca. Sunset for Leaded Aviation Gasoline? Environmental Health Perspectives. Volume 121. No. 2. (February 2013). Pg. A 55. Available online at http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/121-a54/.
  11. Hillsboro Airport Parallel Runway 12L/30R. Draft Environmental Assessment. Volume2 Appendices. Prepared for Port of Portland by CH2MHILL. (October 2009). Pg. C3 1-2.
  12. Hillsboro Airport Parallel Runway 12L/30R. Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment. Appendix E - Air Quality Technical Memo. Prepared for Port of Portland by Barrilleaux, J. and Dowlin R. (3/15/13). Pg. 9-11.
  13. Troutdale Airport APO Terminal Area Forecast Detail Report. Federal Aviation Administration. (Issued February 2014).
  14. June 2015 and Fiscal Year 2015. PDX Aviation Statistics. Port of Portland. Available on-line at https://www2.portofportland.com/Inside/AviationStatistics
  15. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (April 2010). Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded Aviation Gasoline: Regulatory Announcement. Background section. (EPA420-F-10-013). Pg. 3. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/otaq/regs/nonroad/aviation/420f10013.pdf.
  16. Lidsky, T I. and Schneider, JS. Lead Neurotoxicity in Children: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Correlates. Guarantors of Brain (2003), 126, 5-19. Available online at http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/content/126/1/5.full.pdf.
  17. Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children, A Statement by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (August 2005) Pg. 1. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/publications/PrevLeadPoisoning.pdf.
  18. National Institute of Health Medline website. Lead Poisoning. (Site last updated June 22, 2011). U.S. National Library of Medicine. Bethesda, MD. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002473.htm.
  19. Nigg, JT, Knottnerus, GM, Martel MM, Nikolas, M, Cavenaugh, K, Karmaus, W, Rappley, MD. Low Blood Lead Levels Associated with Clinically Diagnosed Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mediated by Weak Cognitive Control. Biological Psychiatry. V. 63 Issue 3. pgs. 325321. (2/1/08).
  20. Nigg, JT, Nikolas, M, Knottnerus, GM, Cavenaugh, K, Frederici, K. Confirmation and Extension of Association of Blood Lead with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD Symptom Domain at Population-Typical Exposure Levels. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. (January 2010) 51(1): 58-65. Available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2810427/.
  21. Fischetti, Mark. Lead Exposure on the Rise Despite Decline in Poisoning Cases. Scientific American. (2/17/13). Available online at http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=lead-exposure-on-the-rise.
  22. Drum, Kevin. Criminal Element Lead. The Hidden Villain behind Rampant Crime, Lower IQ's Even Rising ADHD? Mother Jones. January/February 2013). Available online at http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2013/01/lead-crime-link-gasoline.
  23. The 2011 National Emissions Inventory. Maps and Fusion Tables. Environmental Protection Agency. Available at http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/net/2011inventory.html.
  24. Air Quality. Coalition for a Livable Future website. Available at http://clfuture.org/atlas-maps/air-quality-all-sources.
  25. Ibid.
  26. Chester, Kate. PCC Foundation Adds Local Community Leaders to Its Board. (6/22/15). Portland Community College/PCC Foundation. Available at http://news.pcc.edu/2015/06/pcc-foundation-adds-members/.
  27. Who We Are. Board of Directors. Portland Community College Foundation website. Available on-line at http://www.pcc.edu/foundation/who-we-are/board.html.
  28. Ibid.
  29. General Fund Budget Statistics. Budget and Financial Reports. PCC. Available on-line at http://www.pcc.edu/about/administration/budget/.

Hillsboro and Aerotropolis Development

November 22, 2015

There are troubling indications that the Hillsboro City Council, the Washington County Board of Commissioners and the Hillsboro Airport are pursuing an aerotropolis model as evidenced by opening up farmland, either bordering or in close proximity to the Hillsboro Airport, to taxpayer subsidized industrial development. In the case discussed below, the county and city recently declared 1,090 acres of rural land "blighted" in an effort to quite literally pave the way for additional development. According to Jody Wiser of Tax Fairness Oregon, $131 Million of the money earmarked to pay for this project will be diverted from the K thru 12 educational budget. Oregon is already a state that often receives low or failing grades due to its chronic failure to adequately fund education. It is also negligent in addressing aviation noise and environmental toxins generated by airport related polluters.

For additional information see:

Global Anti-Aerotropolis Movement (GAAM) Update #2

Per Rose Bridger of GAAM,

"The second issue of 'Aerotropolis Update' has been published by the Global Anti-Aerotroplis Movement (GAAM). It contains news of aerotropolis development around 46 airports. A few US airports are mentioned, including Atlanta, but the emphasis is on major developments in Africa and Asia. The allocation of large areas of land, displacement of rural communities, high levels of government expenditure, subsidies such as tax breaks and integration with other megaprojects are among the key concerns. The Update can be viewed and downloaded from the Global Anti-Aerotropolis Movement (GAAM) website: GAAM Aerotropolis Update, No. 2.

The Update contains maps showing the land area for Atlanta Aerotropolis, Long Thanh (Vietnam), and King Shaka (South Africa)."

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